Much good stuff in your post, but the above have errors.
Satellite capture range is static. It does not matter what ship or upgrades you use.
Missiles cannot be outrun. Defensive engine maneuvers and upgraded distortion field can break missile locks before or after the missile is fired. Nothing else works against a missile after it has been fired.
Before a missile has been fired you can break a lock by breaking line of sight, but that's a matter of lock on time not of missile flight speed.
Missiles also seem to go through obstacles quite frequently. I see it cause I use protons without the speed upgrade, they *will* hit unless you use an engine ability, eventually.
Sometimes shot a proton to a fleeing scout heading for the cap ship and get a kill message like 6-7s later. You can't outrun the lock, just give you time for your engine ability to come off CD.