When the position is such that neither side will gain by making the first move, even though the enemy should offer us an attractive bait, it will be advisable not to stir forth, but rather to retreat, thus enticing the enemy in his turn; then, when part of his army has come out, we may deliver our attack with advantage.
You really like this quote, but you have a tendency to take it out of context. This line comes from The Art of War 10:7. The Art of War 10:6 is as follows:
When the position is such that neither side will gain by making the first move, it is called TEMPORIZING ground.
10:7 refers directly to temporizing ground. It is not necessarily applicable to other aspects of war. I would argue that temporizing ground only applies to TDM gameplay where neither side controls a section of space, or the space between the two sides at the start of the match. Even at that point, bombers benefit from stalling: if neither side wants to make the first move, the bombers will set up a home base (complete with railgun drones and/or hyperspace beacons), which gives them an advantage.
Domination gameplay (where bombers excel) is more appropriately described in 10:4-5:
Ground which can be abandoned but is hard to re-occupy is called ENTANGLING. From a position of this sort, if the enemy is unprepared, you may sally forth and defeat him. But if the enemy is prepared for your coming, and you fail to defeat him, then, return being impossible, disaster will ensue.
Thus, you must have a strategem that enables you to assault and capture a fortified satellite without being defeated. This is what the OP is asking for.
(To clarify, the entangling ground is the area between the capital ships and the satellites, which will become filled with blaster fire during your retreat. You will also find it harder to retreat through this area than advance through it, since on advancing you shall be moving at maximum possible speed and on return you will likely find yourself with less engine power and, possibly, a cooldown time on barrel roll.)
Unfortunately, it seems that currently the only way to handle a bomber without using multiple ships is to use an upgraded ion railgun that is specced for aoe damage.