I have answers!
1. Interestingly, it is hard for me to actually provide you a specific example without breaking forum rules. Something that will skip you right over a warning is something that honestly, should be blatantly obvious to anyone is something that is a breach of the rules. As a general statement, something like making a death threat, etc. is something that is of the severity that could do this. However, note that something like that is an extreme example, use your best judgement. If it is something that is a very egregious breach of the rules, it could get you an infraction.
2/3. I have the same answer to both of these. The person that is reviewing disputes is never the same person as the one who gave you an infraction. We do this so that we have our own systems of checks and balances.
4. We will all have our "beloved" trolls and as a part of the new rules we are going to be less strict about this. However, if someone is breaking rules, they will be actioned appropriately.
Hopefully I covered your questions. As theUndead mentioned, I can't exactly spell out all of our policies in depth, but that should hopefully cover your concerns.
Wow you really are a fair moderator, I figured you'd skip my questions entirely. All hail whatever your name is moderator of the forums!