In the novel Shadow Conspiracy.
The cartoon had to delete this scene because there isn't enough time.
With all the pointless screentime used up, something as important as that was left out? Ok. Let's say that was the case, it sounds within character. How could Obi-wan forsee that Maul would be involved? Obi-wan would be more than a match for Visla, should he have to face him. Sure he had the Force, but so does the Council and they couldn't even tell Palpatine was the Sith Lord.
And to your last question, I really didn't answer that.
What does bring Anakin for help and let him fix the ship, not to enrage Maul has anything to do with living as a slave?
All of it, but politics are a factor.
Brining Anakin to fight Deathwatch would have been overkill. Obi-wan was already going to be in a heap of trouble, bringing Anakin and his hot headedness into a situation that could require a gentile touch would be adding gas to the fire. Anakin could have made a bad situation worse, and expose the Jedi Council to negative reprecussions. It would be perfect propaganda to show how the Jedi are a rogue element within the Republic. One Jedi is bad enough, but can be explained away. Having two Jedi operating together, in time of war when resources are streached thin already, would mean that the Council has lost control of it's Jedi (and their respective commands. Don't forget, they are technically Republic Generals) or that the Council approved of their actions against the will of the Senate. Can't imagine the firestorm from that one.
Given what was known, Anakin would have made things worse. I can't imagine a more selfish and self serving act than to bring his friend along.
Fixing the ship. Time was of the essence and the broken ship aided in disarming the Deathwatch mentally. Sure it was a risk, but Obi-wan is a Jedi.
I've gone back and watched it again, what made Maul kill her wasn't Obi-wan making him mad. As soon as I saw the way Maul was sitting, I knew he was going to kill Satine. Not a word was uttered yet. Maul planned to kill her in front of Obi-wan to enrage him. Simple Sith tactic. She was dead the moment Maul set foot on Mandalore, he just used her as bait and when the bait was taken, he killed her. It had nothing to do with making Maul mad.