The short answer is, "No." But here's the long answer....
Duty Officers are items. Remember that, first and foremost.
The quality of a Duty Officer is attached to that item, and not a modifier that is stacked on top of a base item.
All "Kaitlyn Eloise McMillan" Duty Officers have the exact same stats and quality, just the same as all "Phaser Beam Array Mk XI [Dmg]x2" have the exact same stats and quality.
Attempting to modify their quality, and that of any associated Active Roster Power, is not technologically possible. The only way to 'fake' this, would be to create 4 quality levels of every single Duty Officer in the database.
At this point of time, there are a monstrous number of individual Duty Officer items available in Star Trek Online - I couldn't even guess at the number, but it's at least tens-of-thousands. This amount of data has already caused us issues internally with structuring reward tables, and maintaining the Doff system as a whole, among other things. And the only way in which we could perform the item upgrade you are requesting, would be to increase that massive amount of data by around 300%.
Furthermore, Doff Assignments are not capable of reading the input they are given. The only information that an Assignment can read from an input, is whether or not it meets the requirements we have set in place. Requirements that have to be set to "and" and never "or". This means that, in order to allow you to upgrade a specific Duty Officer Item, into a higher quality version of the same item, we would have to hand craft a separate Assignment for every single upgradable Doff in the game.
It's not impossible. But I hope you can see why there's a snowball's chance in hell that it's ever going to happen, using the current Duty Officer system.
I'm just leaving this here as an example of an actual Dev, actually addressing the players, and giving an actual answer. And even tho the answer was a resounding NO, the forums did not explode, the game did not die overnight, and in general life moved on.
Take a lesson.