You will get recipes from your Artifice trainer whenever you level up Artifice high enough to unlock said recipes.
You can be a level 10 character and 400 artifice, there is no restriction on that.
Also when talking to your crafting trainer, there is a dropdown box that will show ALL recipes and then you can hover over them for their levels that you need to be in Artifice to create them.
But to answer your question directly, I THINK the first colors that you are able to craft are blue and green, I might be wrong though since it's been a while for me.
Is Endurance better for Khem Val or Critical?