I get to complete it before the cutscene where it crashes. It's the cutscene that takes me back to the fleet. When I log back in I get quest completed and find myself outside the entrence to Black Talon. At the start of The Foundry I spawn back inside the instance and can keep on completing it. So it's more of an annoyance than something that stops me from playing the game.
Regarding the possibility of my installation of Microsoft Visual Studio C++ being corrupt; this seems highly unlikely. Like others have pointed out, this is not an isolated case, but something very common after 1.5 happening for a LOT of players. If SWTOR 1.5 requires a different version than whats installed, the installation should tell you about this, just like it does with Direct X for most (if not all) games.
Edit: Your post isn't spamming, as its relevant to the case, even if its not a direct question to OP.