I think the short answer is no. There are no item mod schematics that I know of -- maybe someone else can chime in here -- that begin as Prototypes. Therefore, they all follow the simple Premium to Prototype to Artifact path and once they are Artifact quality, there are no further upgrades. Furthermore it's important to remember that as item mods, they follow the Linear progression for RE: you can only get one Prototype from the Premium, and only one Artifact from the Prototype.
... although, on a second read of what you asked, I can't say I know the full answer. Let me rephrase it for everyone else: If you buy someone else's crafted item mod and it is for a skill you know, can you successfully RE a Prototype item for which you do not know the Premium version and get the subsequent Artifact version, without ever having the Base or Tier 1 schematics?
Is that what you were asking?
There are now schematics for some artifact level mods. (I have a link to a screenshot of the advanced agile mod 24 in my cybertech guide, courtesy of Copperhamster). His dropped from EV trash, but I suspect that it is simply a rare world drop off of high level mobs.
Black Hole/Campaign gear's mods and enhancements can be RE'd for schematics, as can the implants and earpieces.
The armorings found in black hole/campaign armor cannot be RE'd, but the type 26 (ilvl 61) ones dropped in Denova as boss drops can be. I'm uncertain whether or not crafted type 26 armorings can be RE'd to learn a new pattern.