... although, on a second read of what you asked, I can't say I know the full answer. Let me rephrase it for everyone else: If you buy someone else's crafted item mod and it is for a skill you know, can you successfully RE a Prototype item for which you do not know the Premium version and get the subsequent Artifact version, without ever having the Base or Tier 1 schematics?
Is that what you were asking?
If that's what he's asking, the answer is yes, at least for barrels. I usually RE'd my way to purple barrels as soon as I learned the green schematic, but a couple of times I got a blue as a quest reward that I hadn't learned the green of and RE'd them and got the purple version, then went to the trainer later and learned the green version, and then had to RE my way to the blue schematic.